1 Background

NAFIS Advocacy program department stands to build, improve and retain the skills and knowledge needed by NAFIS staff, member organizations and other anti-FGM/C stakeholders in Somaliland to be able to professionally carry out anti-FGM/C campaigns. The department seeks to establish existing advocacy gaps among NAFIS staff, member organizations and other stakeholders through Anti-FGM/C action-oriented research with a view to improve these gaps through mentoring,coaching,trainings and workshops to make advocacy and lobbying evidence-based and legitimate. 

Advocacy and lobbying is integral to NAFIS‘s efforts in fighting FGM/C. It is what and how we do to influence FGM/C policy makers and the general public to support the anti-FGM course pursuit by NAFIS in Somaliland. Successful advocacy starts with strategy and moves to tactics. Your strategy is the larger mission, the overall map that guides the use of tactical tools towards clear goals. Start by clarifying your bigger goals and then select your tactics.

Advocacy is an evidence-driven process of strengthening the abilities of individuals, organizations, and systems to perform core functions sustainably, and to continue to improve and develop over time through attitude change and enabling policy enactment, adoption, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of the same.

NAFIS investment in advocacy plans, seeks to assist staff‘s,member organizations’ and other anti-FGM/C stakeholders’ efforts to know the anti-FGM/C cultural, public and policy challenges and respond strategically to prevent new FGM/C practices, care for and treat FGM/C victims who have developed complications due to the practice.

We know that FGM cannot be justified on the grounds of religion or culture, that it is a clear violation of human rights, has a devastating and lasting physical, health and psychological impact on women and girls, and is a barrier to progress and development.

2 Purpose of the Advocacy Department

This department provides an advocacy framework to help NAFIS teams to enhance their approaches and plans for in-country Anti-FGM/C campaigns. It provides an overarching vision for the strengthening of staff, member organizations and other stakeholders’ advocacy to respond efficiently and effectively to the FGM/C practices through more capable Anti-FGM/C government agencies, civil society organizations, private companies, and research and academic communities. 

It is sets clear goals and specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound (SMART) objectives needed to formulate at the beginning of any Anti-FGM/C advocacy work. These are based on the analysis of the FGM/C situation in Somaliland.

A long-term goal of any comprehensive anti-FGM advocacy programme is to reduce FGM/C incidence and finally eradicate the entire practice. A well-planned and well-executed advocacy plan will play a key role in achieving this goal by driving forward the necessary policy and programmatic changes. A good advocacy plan responds to identified needs, builds on opportunities and overcomes barriers to comprehensive zero-tolerance to FGM/C.

 

2.1 Department objectives

The following are examples of short- and medium-term advocacy objectives that can act as incremental steps in the overall development and implementation of a comprehensive FGM/C control plan:

  • To increase FGM  awareness among  anti-FGM stakeholders  and the public;
  • To reduce stigma and fear of un-cut girls and women in the Somali community;
  • To engage and mobilize key stakeholders within the women and former circumcisers’ community who will champion the development and implementation of a comprehensive national anti-FGM/c policy and action control plan and its components;
  • To progressively expand anti-FGM advocacy groups, including community volunteers and FGM survivors, to cover all the regions of the country;
  • To promote the value of comprehensive anti-FGM control and the need for developing laws and programmes;
  • To launch a simplified version of the comprehensive anti-FGM control action plan and disseminate it widely to the media and the lay public using attractive and respectful messages;
  • To promote the effective and equitable implementation of key priority (core) interventions;
  • To mobilize resources to support the implementation of key priority (core) interventions;
  • To maintain the involvement of decision-makers and the public profile of FGM/C control by disseminating information on achievements to date and future plans and challenges.

If levels of FGM awareness are low, and fear and stigma are high, it may well be necessary, at least initially, to focus on the education and empowerment of influential individuals or groups who can then act as societal models, mobilize communities and resources, and influence the demand for change. In communities, trained community leaders, including traditional healers, and real-life testimonies from FGM survivors, family members and caregivers, can often play a vital role in raising FGM awareness and reducing the stigma and fear of uncut girls/women in the society.

2.2 How to Use the Anti-FGM/C Advocacy Department

The Capacity Advocacy Department is meant to complement other three (MEAL, Capacity Building and Self Help Group) departments. Also support current and future NAFIS anti-FGM/C activities with an operational approach to defining and monitoring advocacy and lobbying strategies that are implemented within NAFIS initiatives.

The department is not intended to dictate or direct a single way to approach anti-FGM advocacy, but rather to ensure that a systematic, strategic approach is employed and documented.Ind addition, effective partnerships are aligned with anti-FGM/C program efforts, and that the advocacy outputs, performance outcomes, and Anti-FGM/C program impacts are reported.

This department is a conceptual guide to support NAFIS fraternity to plan systematic advocacy approaches, and provides more comprehensive information how to design an integrated anti-FGM/C advocacy strategy for country teams.

3 Activities under Advocacy department:

Anti-FGM/C activities are but not limited to the following:

  • Raise awareness and educate on FGM and its consequences.
  • Map best practices and collect key data across communities, and regions.
  • Workshops to offer a safe and non-confrontational space for women to talk about the often complex and conflicting feelings surrounding FGM. 
  • Help young women who are at risk of FGM or gender-based violence to access the appropriate services to protect them. Give support and counseling for FGM sufferers and offer expert advice on issues affecting FGM victims such as child birth, reversal procedures and reproductive health.
  • To build and resourced a medical Centre which provides free medication, gynecological checks and counseling for women affected by FGM. 
  • Launch FGM resource film aimed at specialists(health, Human rights and Islamic scholars) to educate on FGM and develop evidence-based research methods with specialists.
  • Campaign which seeks to advance and safeguard the reproductive health of women and girls. NAFIS strives to tackle FGM, child marriage and gender-based violence through educational workshops, advocacy, support programmes and information sharing.
  • Raise awareness of FGM by providing education workshops, organizing fundraising events and supporting victims.
  • Raise awareness on Female Genital Mutilation and to encourage people to take action in collaboration of visual artists, musicians, poets, singers and writers.

4.Advocacy Department Achievements and challenges since 2012

4.1 Achievements

NAFIS network has made significant advocacy achievements since 2012.Main focus was/is on National anti-FGM/C interventions in order to finalize, approve and implement the National anti-FGM/C Policy and laws to eradicate all forms of FGM/C practices in Somaliland. However, to reach the network’s vision of “A society where all forms of violence against women and girls are eliminated,” NAFIS network has carried out different advocacy and lobbying activities that include but not limited to: 

 Development of the National Anti-FGM policy 

NAFIS was the core local organization that facilitated the process of drafting of the National Anti-FGM/C policy by Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MOLSA) in 2012. Later on, NAFIS assisted MOLSA to review and summarize the policy in 2016. Also in 2017, NAFIS with the financial assistant from Comic Relief through Action Aid facilitated translation of the Anti-FGM/C policy into Somali language. Moreover, NAFIS coordinated a lot of lobbying efforts to convince the government to finalize and approve the policy.NAFIS is persistently advocating for finalization and approval of the policy.  

 Carrying out National Researches on FGM/C 

As one of its core mandate, NAFIS in 2014 carried out a nationwide research to assess the prevalence, perception and attitudes on Female Genital Mutilation in Somaliland. The findings showed that the prevalence is still high. For instance, 99.8% of Somaliland girls have undergone at least one of FGM/C practices.NAFIS also in 2015 carried out a mapping survey to explore the geographical spread of the circumcisers (practitioners) and their motivation to cut the girls.NAFIS also, in 2016 carried out an assessment of young boys and girls in the school at the age of 13 years to gauge their knowledge, attitudes and perception on FGM/C.

 Media Engagement

NAFIS network has launched a campaign titled; ‘Media Fight Campaign Against FGM/C.’It has achieved this through training and empowering 35 local media house Personnel. This was to enlighten their understanding and knowledge about the social, economic, medical and psychological consequences of FGM/C.Also, for them to understand the need of advocating for outlawing the practice in Somaliland by voluntarily publishing /reporting anti-FGM/C articles or programs. NAFIS holds quarterly follow up meetings for the trained media personnel to ensure effective reporting of FGM/C issues.  

Apart from the empowerment of the local media houses, NAFIS network regularly disseminate awareness messages on TVs and Radios. To reinforce the former, it organizes talk shows and debates for the stakeholders to discuss the issues surrounding FGM/C in Somaliland. In addition, NAFIS produces IEC materials on regular basis and posts weekly advocacy messages on the social media to inform the progress and challenges faced in pursuit for eradication of FGM/C practices in Somaliland.

 Dialogues for the prominent Religious Leaders

NAFIS conducted several dialogues for the prominent Religious Leaders in Somaliland led by the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MoRA).This debated thoroughly about the methodology on development of Fatwa criminalize FGM/C practice in Somaliland. This was meant to support the National Anti-FGM/C policy. Fortunately, the last two meetings with Religious Leaders resulted into a draft containing 10 articles criminalizing the Pharaoinic type of FGM/C in Somaliland. NAFIS expects them to finalize the Fatwa after the presidential elections and then be shared to the other line ministries of MoLSA, MoH and MoJ for submitting it to the Cabinet.

 Anti-FGM/C Advocacy Strategy

In November 2016, NAFIS developed Anti-FGM/C Advocacy Strategy for the adoption of Anti-FGM/C policy and enactment of the Anti-FGM/C law.The process for developing this advocacy strategy started in 2013.This was when NAFIS through an extensive participatory process that involved staff, board of directors, member organizations, other civil society organizations, government institutions and individual experts reviewed the 2009-2012 NAFIS organizational strategy. This process identified lack of advocacy strategy as one of the major weakness. As a result, in the current organizational strategy 2016 – 2019, NAFIS planned to develop the advocacy strategy. In addition, NAFIS advocacy capacity assessment that was carried out in 2016 revealed lack of advocacy strategy as one of the areas that needed urgent attention. In Addition, NAFIS established a mechanism that is named (Advocacy Working Group) and tasked it to spearhead the implementation of the Advocacy strategy. 

 4.2 Challenges

Since 2012, it is evidential that NAFIS has faced many hurdles on the way to achieve zero-tolerance to FGM/C through advocacy and lobbying. This has been both internally in terms of capacity and legitimacy to external perception and policy/law hindrances.

There is glaringly lack of commitment by the policy makers on FGM/C eradication. More so to finalize and approve the National Anti-FGM/C policy

Religious leaders have varying positions on eradicating FGM/C.This clearly is exhibited in some agreement to have Pharaonic abandoned but have Suna type continued.

To make matters worse, some of the local Anti-FGM/C organizations are promoting Suna type of FGM.This makes it difficult for the zero-tolerance message to sink in the people’s minds. 

There is a strong belief that FGM/C is a religious obligation by the society. Therefore, the society is convicted to perpetuate the practice. 

 

5 Advocacy (Staff, Member organizations and other stakeholders) Ownership

NAFIS has identified public attitude and policy influence as an important dimension of sustainable ownership of anti-FGM advocacy and lobbying. It recognizes that for anti-FGM/C programs to be sustained and quality retained, NAFIS Staff, Member organizations and other stakeholders must have the technical and management advocacy capabilities to oversee programs and make adjustments and social and political policy shifts over time. Advocacy for a national Anti-FGM/C policy and laws criminalizing FGM practices supported through NAFIS programs is an essential component of strengthening ownership of Anti-FGM/C programs. This ownership requires that NAFIS Staff, Member organizations and other stakeholders be capable of mobilizing, designing, implementing and monitoring, and take on greater leadership in anti-FGM/C advocacy programs, and evaluation efforts.

To effectively strengthen anti-FGM/C campaign ownership, advocacy priorities must be generated with the leadership of key anti-FGM/C stakeholders in the country. Also, building on existing infrastructure, abilities and experience. Recognizing the interdependence among multiple actors, systems, and levels, and responding to political and governmental realities about zero-tolerance to FGM/C equally important. Advocacy approaches must be tailored to meet the needs of individual NAFIS Staff, Member organizations and other stakeholders. In addition, contribute to national anti-FGM/C strategies and advocacy plans with efforts aligned and harmonized among anti-FGM/C donors.

In the design and planning phase of advocacy and lobby initiatives, partnerships with national government and local partners, including the active involvement of all local stakeholders, are essential. They enhance establishing ownership for the advocacy goals, implementation of activities, and monitoring and evaluation plans.

 

 6 NAFIS Advocacy Framework

Advocacy should be driven by clearly defined objectives that state what the initiative is intended to achieve and how it will accomplish its objectives, in the context of NAFIS, its strategic plan, and the expected prevention, and anti-FGM/C advocacy program outcomes. Partnerships will be pivotal to advocacy and will ensure that local anti-FGM/C organizations own and lead the advocacy and lobbying process.

There is need to build the capacity of various anti-FGM stakeholders at different levels for them to approach anti-FGM campaigns formidably and professionally.

6.1 Partnerships 

Partnerships are a fundamental component of an effective Anti-FGM/C advocacy strategy. This is because of their central role in establishing ownership, support, and sustainability of advocacy interventions. Partnerships supporting advocacy occur at multiple levels, from strategic national partnerships that prioritize a country-level plan for advocacy in FGM/C programs, to implementation partnerships that support specific advocacy activities in different technical program areas. Therefore, partnerships for advocacy can include national and local government entities, local research and development institutions, nongovernmental organizations, networks, communities, academia and the private sector. Partnership Framework Implementation Plans are an important foundation for identifying what key anti-FGM/C partnerships will support advocacy efforts.

Partnership efforts supporting advocacy must be explicitly recognized and monitored for their effectiveness. To achieve sustained improvements in advocacy outcomes, it must continually focus on supporting ownership of the process; otherwise, there is the risk that advocacy ideas and spirit will diminish once donor resources or interest end.

6.2 Integrated, Multi-level Strategies for Advocacy 

The advocacy Framework reflects an integrated and reinforcing set of advocacy activities that address individual/workforce, organizational, and systems levels of advocacy capacity to further leadership in addressing FGM/C issues. NAFIS teams are encouraged to examine their programs through the lens of this framework.

Individual and workforce level advocacy activities should be within the context of and accompanied by strengthening of organization’s and systems that will ensure the sustainability of anti-FGM/C activities, outputs, and outcomes. Advocacy strategies should include strengthening of local organizations and local and national government units to implement the full array of National Anti-FGM/C policy activities. These are required to sustain anti-FGM/C program outputs, outcomes and impact with decreasing levels of external assistance. Hence, it should be within the context of systems at the local, district and national levels within the Somaliland context.

6.3 Individual/Workforce level 

Individual/workforce level capacity building in advocacy activities improve the performance of staff according to specific, defined competencies. This needs to be looked at in the context of the organization(s) and systems in which the individuals work. Also, all staff required to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate anti-FGM/C advocacy programs, including managers, finance staff, supply chain staff, researchers, laboratory professionals, and social workers should be considered.

At the individual level, advocacy capacity building can include pre-service or in-service training, on the job training, mentoring, distance learning, advance degree or certificate programs, or continuing education courses. This might be reflected in coaching activities, mentoring activities and workshops. Such trainings may be targeted at clinical or management staff, community health workers, volunteers, for example, and specific technical skills, psycho-social support for FGM/C victims, financial management or M&E skills. Additional activities to support individual/workforce include access to information and professional networks, and providing clear job requirements and career progression for individuals. To enhance and retain competencies, individual capacity requires supportive supervision along with the requisite advocacy job aids, supplies and equipment. Other areas for individual/workforce capacity building include leadership, management, and governance training and development.

6.4 Organizational level 

Advocacy capacity building in this context is intended to facilitate and accelerate the development of sustainable NAFIS member organizations within the country that can respond to the FGM/C practices. Organizational level advocacy capacity building activities improve the ability of organizations to finance, plan, manage, implement and monitor anti-FGM advocacy programs. These are both in the immediate and longer term, through the strengthening of internal organizational structures, administrative systems and processes, quality assurance systems, program/project management, leadership, governance, resource mobilization and overall staff advocacy capacity. 

Organizational advocacy capacity building is often based on organizational assessments that systematically look at strengths and weaknesses of organizations and is used to develop responses to identified weaknesses. Interventions can be trainings, mentoring, and technical assistance to develop systems and standard operating procedure.Also,to develop documents or tools, curriculum and or laboratories, hiring of staff to fill organizational needs and staff retention and recruitment incentives. It is critical that the interventions be based on assessed needs and that they be designed to improve the organization‘s overall performance and its ability to adapt itself within a changing context.Also,not be limited to immediate program implementation needs. However, broader organizational capacities, including leadership development and team building, financial management, and internal business operations and procedures, are closely linked to sustained program performance. Organizational level advocacy capacity building often requires changes in organizational vision, strategy, structure, behavior and attitudes found in organizations and systems and may require facilitation.

6.5 Systems level 

The system level refers to the functions and structures that support programs and activities that cut across organizations. Systems and policy level advocacy capacity building activities improve the external environment in which anti-FGM organizations and individuals function. This includes structures supporting the way organizations interact, and/or policies and standards that must be adhered to. This also, includes setting standards, guidelines and requirements at the national level, including supportive anti-FGM/C policy and legal environments. Systems below the national level also require advocacy capacity building, such as systems of coordination and support, reporting, referrals and linkages at regional or local levels. Other local systems are also important, such as networks and coordination of providers of community-based support programs.

7 Monitoring and Evaluating Capacity Building Strategies

Advocacy department activities requires the same rigorous monitoring and evaluation as other NAFIS department interventions. Therefore, monitoring and evaluation of anti-FGM efforts should be programmed from the beginning, and should be designed to demonstrate results for the NAFIS mandate to develop partner country advocacy capacity to respond to FGM/C effectively and efficiently.

Anti-FGM capacity building strategies will include a heterogeneous set of activities between technical program areas and across regions. This guidance will provide an outline of basic information recommended for documenting the planning, implementation and measurement of progress. This is useful in developing country advocacy capacity to respond to NAFIS effectively and efficiently.

Anti-FGM strategies and interventions should be informed by agreed-upon priorities with local and national partners. There should be sufficient baseline performance information on existing workforce, organizational, and systems level capacity and performance, and targeted assessments of needs where appropriate. Monitoring and evaluation of advocacy is an integral part of the overall Anti-FGM/C monitoring and evaluation framework.

Following this framework, these are key questions that programs should address in planning and monitoring advocacy strategies and activities:

1. What are the overall advocacy strategy and objectives for your program? Does the approach integrate individual/workforce, organizational, and systems/policy needs? Is the priority determined by its expected effect on health outcomes and impacts? 

2. What are specific priority advocacy objectives by technical area? Does each approach integrate individual/workforce, organizational, and systems/policy needs? Is the priority determined by its expected effect on health outcomes and impacts?

3. What current or new partnerships with national government, local organizations and other stakeholders will support the advocacy strategy?

 4. What are the anti-FGM advocacy activities, outputs, and outcomes and what indicators will be used to measure these? 

5. What measures are in place or will be developed to assure that quality standards remain as the government’s take a greater role in leading and managing the response. What advocacy capacities will need to be enhanced to take on these roles? Quality standards are determined at the national level based on input from a collaborative process within the country and other stakeholders.

6. What are the benchmarks to measure change in the intended overall performance outcome(s) of all capacity building activities that will support the independent implementation of Anti-FGM/C advocacy programs and services by national government and anti-FGM local partners? 

7. How is advocacy department activities complementing Capacity Building, MEAL and Self Help Group departments’ activities.

 

Background

NAFIS Capacity building program department was established in January 2017, the department stands to build, improve and retain the skills and knowledge needed by NAFIS staff, member organizations and other anti-FGM/C stakeholders in Somaliland. 

The department seeks to establish existing capacity gaps among NAFIS staff, member organizations and other stakeholders through Anti-FGM/C capacity needs assessments with a view to improve these gaps through mentoring,coaching,trainings and workshops. 

Capacity building is integral to NAFIS‘s efforts in fighting FGM/C. It is what we do and how we do our work. Capacity is defined as; ―the ability of individuals and organizations or organizational units to perform functions effectively, efficiently and sustainably. Capacity building is an evidence-driven process of strengthening the abilities of individuals, organizations, and systems to perform core functions sustainably, and to continue to improve and develop over time.

NAFIS investment in capacity building plans, seeks to assist staff‘s,member organizations’ and other anti-FGM/C stakeholders’ efforts to know the anti-FGM/C challenges and respond strategically to prevent new FGM/C practices, care for and treat FGM/C victims who have developed complications due to the practice.

2. Purposes

This department provides a framework to help NAFIS teams to enhance their approaches and plans for in-country Anti-FGM/C capacity building. It provides an overarching vision for the strengthening of staff, member organizations and other stakeholders’ capacity to respond efficiently and effectively to the FGM/C practices through more capable Anti-FGM/C government agencies, civil society organizations, private companies, and research and academic communities. 

2.1 Department objectives

 To provide a high level strategic framework for capacity building within NAFIS for use by technical working groups (staff, member organizations and other stakeholders).

 To Encourage strategic use of resources to develop capacity in the context of overall national strategic plans for anti-FGM/C and the broader, health sector both public and private that come face to face with women genitalia complications as FGM/C outcomes.

 To promote the development of more strategic, systematic, and measurable approaches to capacity building at all levels.

 To provide illustrative approaches to monitor and communicate results on anti-FGM/C capacity building efforts by specific technical areas.

 

 2.2 How to Use the Anti-FGM/C Capacity Building Department

The Capacity Building Department is meant to complement and support current and future NAFIS anti-FGM/C activities with an operational approach to defining and monitoring capacity building strategies that are implemented within these NAFIS initiatives.

The department is not intended to dictate or direct a single way to approach capacity building, but rather to ensure that a systematic, strategic approach is employed and documented, that effective partnerships are aligned with anti-FGM/C program efforts, and that the capacity building outputs, performance outcomes, and Anti-FGM/C program impacts are reported.

This department is a conceptual guide to support NAFIS fraternity to plan systematic capacity building approaches, and provides more comprehensive information how to design an integrated anti-FGM/C capacity building strategy for country teams.

3. Projects under Capacity Building department

  1. Enhancing holistic approach in combating FGM in Somaliland through behavioral change, legislation and involvement of new actors.
  2. Termination Oppression against women and girls Program “STOP”
  3. Scaling up community education and FGM survivor support in Somaliland
  4. Developing a sustainable, climate-adjusted approach to food security and increasing

 

4.  The Department so far acheived the following:   

NAFIS mapped out all anti-FGM/C stakeholders and their roles on end of FGM/C continuity; particularly mapped out (as one on one meeting) the civil society organizations working on this campaign to understand their attitudes and level of capacity in relation to this campaign.  

 Also, NAFIS established national and regional level coordination and networking platforms among the stakeholders with collaboration of Ministry of labor and social affairs. 

 NAFIS in collaboration with its member organizations established Anti-FGM/C Youth forums in three eastern regions of Somaliland (Sool, Sanaag and Togdheer) to understand the practice in person and take part in the campaign at youth and community level.  

 NAFIS developed FGM/C mainstreaming guide book to enable project staff, its member organizations and other civil society organizations to mainstream Anti-FGM work into their projects at field level.  

 

 5. Capacity Building (Staff, Member organizations and other stakeholders) Ownership

NAFIS has identified capabilities as an important dimension of sustainable ownership. It recognizes that for anti-FGM/C programs to be sustained and quality retained, NAFIS Staff, Member organizations and other stakeholders must have the technical and management capabilities to oversee programs and make adjustments and shifts over time. Capacity building, consistent with national Anti-FGM/C policy and supported through NAFIS programs, is an essential component of strengthening ownership of Anti-FGM/C programs. This ownership requires that NAFIS Staff, Member organizations and other stakeholders be capable of mobilizing, designing, implementing and monitoring, and take on greater leadership in anti-FGM/C programs, and evaluation efforts.

To effectively strengthen anti-FGM/C campaign ownership, capacity building priorities must be generated with the leadership of key anti-FGM/C stakeholders in the country, building on existing infrastructure, abilities and experience, recognizing the interdependence among multiple actors, systems, and levels, and responding to political and governmental realities about zero-tolerance to FGM/C. Approaches must be tailored to meet the needs of individual NAFIS Staff, Member organizations and other stakeholders, and contribute to national anti-FGM/C strategies and capacity building plans with capacity building efforts aligned and harmonized among anti-FGM/C donors.

 

ABOUT NAFIS

“NAFIS envision a society where all forms of violence against women and girls are eliminated”.

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Email : nafis@nafisnetwork.org

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